i believe its only the ‘ALL Products’ Woocommerce Block that allows you to edit its content and add stuff like the Short Description. Which is kinda annoying.
The Woocommerce shortcodes will display the Short Description if its set to display in Customizer > Layout > Woocommerce -> Shop. But this will apply to ALL shortcodes and the default woo shop page. Its kinda all or nothing.
I was really kind of hopeful when the released Woocommerce blocks, but they are just so inconsistent in their behaviour. I hope they ‘sort’ that out in the future and i hope you find a working solution. Let us know if you need any assistance.